Stern and E. Svetoch et al. Bacteriocins reduce Campylobacter colonization and alter gut morphology in Turkey poults. Nisbet, C. Scanlan, A. Hollister and D. Caldwell et al. Treatment of commercial broiler chickens with a characterized culture of cecal bacteria to reduce Salmonellae colonization.
Hollister and J. Deloach, Control of Salmonella typhimurium colonization in broiler chicks with a continuous-flow characterized mixed culture of cecal bacteria. Scanlan, G. Tellez, B. Hargis and J. Inhibition of Salmonella enteritidis cecal and organ colonization in leghorn chicks by a defined culture of cecal bacteria and dietary lactose. Bailey and L. Blankenship, Alternative Administration of Competitive Exclusion Treatment.
Fratamico, P. Hoekstra, M. Samuel, R. Marcus and J. Bender et al. Risk factors for sporadic Campylobacter infection in the United States: A case-control study in foodnet sites. Probiotics in man and animals. Applied Bacteriol. Hassuneh and P. Coolins, Campylobacter jejuni infection on poultry farms and its effect on poultry meat contamination during slaughtering.
Food Prot. Jacob, Alternatives to antibiotics for organic poultry production. Applied Poult. Is storage an adaptation to spatial variation in resource availability? Hsu and F. Wang, Competition between microorganisms for a single limiting resource with cell quota structure and spatial variation. Engel, F. Wagenaar and H. Urlings, Fermented liquid feed reduces susceptibility of broilers for Salmonella enteritidis.
Higgins, A. Wolfenden, S. Henderson and A. Torres-Rodriguez et al. Effect of lactic acid bacteria probiotic culture treatment timing on Salmonella Enteritidis in neonatal broilers. Hollister, D. Nisbet, D. Corrier and J. DeLoach, Effect of a characterized continuous-flow culture of cecal bacteria on Salmonella typhimurium crop colonization in broiler chicks. Corrier, D. Nisbet and J.
Reduction of Salmonella crop and cecal colonization by a characterized competitive exclusion culture in broilers during grow-out. Mead and S. George, Competitive exclusion of Salmonellas from the chick caecum using a defined mixture of bacterial isolates from the caecal microflora of an adult bird. Hygiene, Evaluation of treatment with defined and undefined mixtures of gut microorganisms for preventing Salmonella colonization in chicks and Turkey poults.
Food Microbiol. Lin, J. Novel approaches for Campylobacter control in poultry. Foodborne Pathog. Prospects for competitive exclusion treatment to control salmonellas and other foodborne pathogens in poultry. Factors affecting intestinal colonization of poultry by Campylobacter and role of microflora in control.
World's Poult. Methner, U. Barrow, G. Martin and H. Meyer, Comparative study of the protective effect against Salmonella colonization in newly hatched SPF chickens using live attenuated salmonella vaccine strains wild-type salmonella strains or a competitive exclusion product. Food Microb. Balaskas, I. Xanthakos, A. Tzivinikou and K. Fegeros, Effects of a multi-species probiotic on biomarkers of competitive exclusion efficacy in broilers challenged with Salmonella enteritidis. Corrier, C. Hollister, R. Beier and J.
Effect of a defined continuous-flow derived bacterial culture and dietary lactose on Salmonella typhimurium colonization in broiler chickens. Corrier, S. Ricke, M. Hume, J. Byrd II and J. Maintenance of the biological efficacy in chicks of a cecal competitive-exclusion culture against Salmonella by continuous-flow fermentation.
Ricke, C. Scanlan, D. Corrier, A. Inoculation of broiler chicks with a continuous-flow derived bacterial culture facilitates early cecal bacterial colonization and increases resistance to Salmonella typhimurium. Norkrans, G. Svedhem, Epidemiologic aspects of Campylobacter jejuni enteritis.
Rantala, New aspects of Salmonella infection in broiler production. Nature, Burkholder, Application of prebiotics and probiotics in poultry production. Fukata, E. Baba and A. Arakawa, Effect of lactose and Lactobacillus acidophilus on the colonization of Salmonella enteritidis in chicks concurrently infected with Eimeria tenella.
Pettit, Observations on competitive exclusion for preventing Salmonella typhimurium infection of broiler chickens. Miki, Species coexistence under resource competition with intraspecific and interspecific direct competition in a chemostat. Nuotio, Efficacy of different microbial preparations for controlling Salmonella colonization in chicks and turkey poults by competitive exclusion.
Variations on the Efficacy of Probiotics in Poultry
Competitive exclusion in poultry: 30 years of research. Food Control, Hakkinen, L. Nuotio, E. Nurmi and G. Mead, Droplet application for protecting chicks against Salmonella colonization by competitive exclusion.
Schoeni, J. Doyle, Reduction of Campylobacter jejuni colonization of chicks by cecum-colonizing bacteria producing anti-C. Lee and T. According to Weinack et al. However, Fuller reports that the stressor agent must be present before any effect of the probiotic supplement can be observed and that there will only be stimulus to growth it the depressor agent is present, that is, the author emphasizes that for the evidence of improvement on the performance of animals, the breeding environment must not be free from challenges. In experimental conditions, the absence of beneficial results can be justified by this statement.
In these conditions, an imbalance in the intestinal microbiota is created and the body defense mechanisms are decreased Jin et al. In literature, several treatment methods using probiotics are described, such as through feed, addition to drinking water, spraying on the birds, inoculation via cloaca or in embryonated eggs in ovo , through the litter used, in gelatin capsules and intra-esophagus Schneitz, ; Ziprin et al.
This way, the administration route of probiotics can determine an improvement or worsening in the intestinal colonization capacity by the bacteria present in the product used. One justification for the absence of results with the use of probiotics in drinking water can be the presence of residual chlorine and the fact of the product becoming inefficient before all chicks have received the micro-organisms in the appropriate dose Seuna et al. Also, according to Siriken et al. Lan et al. Currently, the modern broiler and turkey lineages present high weight gain capacity.
However, when compared with lineages of slower growth, they are more susceptible to infectious diseases Korver, According to the same author, modern broilers and turkeys present a depressed systemic innate immune response to allow fast growth, once the deviation of nutrients to the development of systemic inflammatory response is minimum, and despite presenting better immunity mediated by cells, there is evidence of increase in the mortality among fast-growth poultry when compared with slow-growth ones, which might justify differences in the effects between the different bird lineages.
Regarding age, the paper by Mohan et al. Certainly, during the initial stages of life, the intestinal microbiota is in an unstable condition, and the micro-organisms given orally probably find a niche where they can occupy Fuller, Therefore, Siriken et al. It should also be noticed that some micro-organisms that can act as probiotics do not resist the action of some antibiotics or anticoccidial used in the feed of birds Jin et al. Other factors that might justify the variations in the effects of probiotics in poultry are: variations in the persistence of administered strains relative intestinal concentration Siriken et al.
A study performed by Weese with eight veterinary and five human probiotics showed that only three from the eight veterinarian products provided data regarding its content; the majority of the products had less quantity than the one declared and five products lacked one or more strains declared; and three products had different strains from the ones declared in the package. Similar work was developed by Lata et al.
The three products containing Enterococcus faecium in its composition presented the amount of bacteria as declared in its label. However, the presence of Lactobacillus sp. In the product containing Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus paracasei in its composition, only Bacillus subtilis was found in amounts lower than the one declared. With all these possible variations, it is not surprising that probiotics not always grant the desired result, but the fact that significant results are obtained show that the correct use of probiotics, under appropriate conditions and using the correct administration method, justify the fact that probiotics are an efficient food supplement in animal breeding.
However, there were no significant differences for the total breeding period days , demonstrating that the period of treatment with probiotic might influence the performance results. On the other hand, works performed by Loddi et al. In Japanese quails Coturnix coturnix japonica , Sahin et al. In a similar way, Otutumi et al. Yang compiled several studies with diverging results regarding the performance of broilers with the use of probiotics Table 1. Faria Filho et al.midan-eng.com/libraries/rencontres-lillers/nabep-femme-cherche-homme.php
Blankenship (ed), Colonization Control of Human Bacterial Enteropathologens in Poultry, 1e
Based on the results, the authors concluded that the usage of probiotics is a viable technique for improvement on the development of broilers. Eggs production has been also investigated in relation to probiotic application.
Davis and Anderson reported that a mixed cultures of Lactobacillus acidophilus , L. Moreover, probiotics increase egg production Kurtoglu et al. In laying Japanese quails, Ayasan et al. One of the action mechanisms of the previously mentioned probiotics was the competitive exclusion, which plays an important role in the prevention of enteric colonization by pathogenic micro-organisms, among them, Salmonella spp. According to Scanlan , three mechanisms present an important role in the prevention of enteric colonization of chicks by Salmonella spp. However, some authors have reported their inefficacy Stavric et al.
Table 2 shows that in several works there was a high percentage of reduction in the colonization by Salmonella spp with the use of probiotics in broilers. Effectiveness of probiotics in the prevention of Salmonella colonization in broiler chicken. Mountzouris et al. Also, the authors have found an increase in the concentration of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus at 42 days of age. Thus, the supplementation of probiotic in the indicated concentrations has been efficient as modulation of beneficial microbiota and reducing the studied pathogens.
According to Leandro et al. Therefore, broilers challenged early post eclosion and not receiving probiotics presented reduction of Salmonella in gastrointestinal tract crop and cecum of the birds and a better performance. Haghighi et al. In meat quails, Otutumi et al. However, it is worth mentioning that when evaluating the microbial population in the intestine, there is a very large standard deviation, which many times makes it difficult to identify differences by the use of inappropriate statistical models.
And despite having used appropriate statistical analysis, the results were not significant. Siriken et al. This drawback, however, has been overcome today to a large extent by employing molecular techniques Ajithdoss et al. The suggested mechanism by which probiotics might exert their protective or therapeutic effect against enteric pathogens include non immune mechanisms, such as the stabilization of the gut mucosal barrier, increasing the secretion of mucus, improving gut motility, and therefore interfering with their ability to colonize and infect the mucosa; competing for nutrients; secreting specific low molecular weight antimicrobial substances bacteriocins Delgado et al.
The quality of broiler meat as well as the reduction of fat levels in the carcass have been a constant concern of researchers. Thus, research directed to the improvement of meat quality has been made including the use of probiotics. Santoso et al.
This parameter was also evaluated by Denli et al. Equally, Pietras demonstrated that L. Other works with supplementation of probiotics based on Lactobacillus spp. In Japanese quails with 4 weeks of age, Homma e Shinohara studying the effect of a commercial probiotic based on Bacillus cereus toyoi on the accumulation of abdominal fat verified that at eight weeks four weeks of probiotic supplementation period , birds fed the control diet with probiotic had significantly less abdominal fat than those fed without the probiotic.
Moreover, probiotic supplementation has been shown to reduce the cholesterol concentration in egg yolk Abdulrahim et al. Regarding the microbiological quality of meat, Bailey et al. Likewise, Estrada et al. The surveys aiming the reduction in growth time in poultry, together with the increase of its live weight, have led to the development of broilers known as conformation or yield type.
Among these aspects, it is notable the increase in bone problems, once the genetic selection for a high growth rate has promoted higher breast muscle weight when compared to the muscles and bones in legs, and therefore, this unbalanced redistribution of weight has increased the leg problems in poultry Yalcin et al.
From an economic point of view, there is a great concern by the companies with the losses regarding bone anomalies in broilers, since they have contributed for the reduction in productivity and increase in mortality, as well as condemnation of whole carcasses or during the processing of meat.
The most prevalent bone problems in broilers are tibial dyschondroplasia, chronic painful lameness in older or reproductive broilers, condrodistrophy or bone angular deformity, valgus-varus angular deformities, spondylolisthesis, rickets, epiphyseal separation, femoral necrosis, curled toes and rupture of gastrocnemius tendon Julian, ; Angel, The etiology of bone abnormalities is generally complex and apparently it is not related to a single factor, and sometimes there is an overlapping among etiology, pathology and clinical signs of these conditions.
Factors affecting the intestinal epithelium, leading to the reduction of nutrient absorption, as well as anti-nutritional factors of the ingredients can induce leg disorders caused by nutritional imbalance. Thus, genetics, handling, nutrition, hygiene and diseases will influence the occurrence of leg problems under field or experimental conditions. Therefore, even if the content of diets seems to be adequate, bone abnormalities can appear Waldenstedt, Although studies demonstrate probable influence of probiotics, prebiotics and symbiotics on the bone characteristics of poultry, it is not well established the relation between probiotics and mineral absorption or bone growth Mutus et al.
Likewise, Mutus et al. Although the bone abnormality score has not been influenced, Panda et al. According to the authors, the supplementation of diets with probiotics resulted in higher serum concentration of calcium, which might explain the better resistance and ash concentration of bones.
According to the authors, the supplementation of diet with antibiotic substitutes can increase digestibility and availability of nutrients such as calcium and phosphorus due to the development of a desirable microflora in the digestive tract, which in turn results in an increase in mineral retention and bone mineralization. Nahashon et al. On the other hand, in a study with broilers, Maiorka et al.
Working with broilers, Angel et al. Data revealed that probiotics based on lactobacillus can improve the retention of nutrients, allowing its usage in feeds with lower nutritional levels, reducing excretion and costs. According to Scholz-Ahrens et al. As it can be seen, the results of research available in literature with the use of probiotics are very variable, once several factors can interfere, such as the type of probiotic, its action mode, its interaction with the host and breeding environment.
However, evidences presented in relation to the benefit of its use justify the continuity of research with the objective of expanding the knowledge on its action mechanism, its immune-modulation effect and methodologies that aid the maintenance of its viability for use in animal feed. Licensee IntechOpen. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.
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Downloaded: Introduction In face of the current debate about the use of antibiotics as growth promoters, due to the probable relationship with resistance to antibiotics used in human medicine, the presence of antibiotic residues in products of animal origin intended for human consumption and the emergent demand from consumer market for products free from additive residues, it was necessary to search for alternative products that could replace antibiotics used as promoters, without causing losses to productivity or product quality.