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Teachers and supporters strike outside East High School on May 7, teachers to horrendous working conditions and expose students to overcrowded classrooms. to be written out of the script of a potentially radical democracy. . a rise in economic inequality, families unable to support themselves.

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You have been a practising science teacher and now you are ready to be regular science teacher, teaching a class of physics or chemistry, biology or integrated science, you will surely like to be a good science teacher. A good teacher is a congenial and conscientious person who leads an ordinary normal life. He is respected and intelligent person. He possesses a sense of humour and also an aptitude for teaching. Another requirement for a good teacher is that he should have a high sense of principle and an aptitude for creative work and scientific curiosity.

In this chapter we will try to make a distinction between a good teacher and a good chemistry teacher we will also discuss the kind of training required to produce a good chemistry teacher.

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The training of a good chemistry teacher, to a large extent, depends on the following factors: i The careful selection of the candidates. For such a selection very useful role can be played by university and college teachers in taking part, with school teachers and pupils, in chemistry competitions, evening get-togethers, science clubs etc. It is essential because only personal contacts and close acquaintance with potential teacher-training candidates can ensure success in the search of boys and girls who are sufficiently talented and gifted to became good teachers.

This process of selection should continue through out the academic career of the prospective candidate and should not end even at the end of university education. For any one who opts to become a teacher the basic requirement is that he must be dedicated and sincerely interested in communicating knowledge. He must also be willing to undertake the arduous task of educating younger generation. The number of teachers depend directly on the number of young people choosing this difficult career.

College of education and awarded a degree in teaching i.


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It is a general belief that a thorough knowledge of chemistry is first and foremost for becoming a good chemistry teacher. It is also desirable for a chemistry teacher to become acquainted with those aspects of physics, biology and other natural sciences which chemists need and use. Secondary school chemistry teachers are in short supply in most countries and even developed countries also face difficulties in recruiting specialised teachers. A serious shortage of teachers inevitably entails additional concern about quality. Not surprisingly, therefore, both these concerns, together with the need to respond to innovation in school curricula, have been important in promoting a reconsideration of the structure and content of teacher training programme in many countries.

Teachers for primary classes are usually trained in colleges of education, which may or may not be attached to the university. Teachers for senior secondary classes have followed a science course in a university. These days there is an increasing number of university courses devoted to chemistry and education and students have to choose before going to university whether or not they wish to teach.

In Malaysia B. Such a system with slight variations can be seen in a wide range of developed and developing countries. In some universities an inter-linked study scheme has been introduced. In Yugoslavia. This type of structure is also seen in U. At one university in U. Role of the Teacher 57 The remaining 35 per cent of the curriculum time is used for educational studies but students still have to take a fourth- year, post-graduate course of training for the teaching profession. In Sri Lanka some elements of chemical education have been introduced into university chemistry courses.

Chemical education is also available as an optional study for a small proportion of the chemistry undergraduates in united kingdom. In the United States, 4-year courses of concurrent study of chemistry and other sciences and of education is the common pattern. This leads to courses of approximately 60 per cent science, 20 per cent education and 20 per cent general education.

Recently some initiatives have been taken in United Kingdom to increase the role of schools in the teacher training process. Thus we can see that the three elements of training described earlier must be interrelated: the acquisition of knowledge in the sciences; the foundation in education; and teaching methods and practice. The relative importance attached to the three parts and degree of integration between them varies from country to country. One aspect of moving the balance in favour of methodology is the need to arrange as much teaching practice as possible. The content of the methodology part of the course must also include an appreciation of assessment techniques because these will be crucial part of their pupils work and thorough training in setting questions and marking answers is needed.

Various ways in which school teachers can receive further training are: By Self Improvement: It requires reading books, pamphlets and journals, consulting specialists etc. In this self improvement process T. For success of self-improvement programme the teacher must have the time and money to buy books and pay for subscription of journals. However, secondary school teachers have seldom been found interested to utilise this opportunity of self improvement.

Organisation of Refresher Courses: Refresher courses are organised by universities for the improvement in the quality of their teachers. Such refresher courses provide an opportunity to secondary school teachers to establish working links with scientific groups, obtain first hand knowledge and become immersed in main stream of modern scientific thought. Role of the Teacher 59 Participation in Revision and Improvement: By such a participation teachers get an opportunity to come in close contact with each other and discuss their problems and elicit their concrete suggestions for further training.

A need is felt to identify the skill areas which the trainee teacher ought to develop. These areas are concerned with the short-term aim of pre- service training. Thus they aim to prepare and equip the student for first few years of class room teaching. They also assume that the teacher has a mastery in his subject. For a long-term aim such prospective teachers must be acquainted with the history, philosophy, sociology and economics of educational system.

Various curriculum development projects in teacher education have been started in different parts of the world. The aims of such projects are: i Identification of those aspects of science teaching methods which must be covered in pre-service training. ASTEP introduced forty-seven units of activities and experiences in six sections. Understanding Science 7 units 2.

Undestanding pupils 6 units 3. Models of teaching 12 units 4. Considering the curriculum 8 units 5. The laboratory as a teaching resource 9 units 6. The Australian context 5 units The Thai Science Teaching Project Thai-STEP is another such projects which aims at improving the pre-service training in all higher education institutions with teacher training responsibility across Thailand. STEP pooled the ideas of over fifty science tutors in training institutions and developed and tested materials. Such projects have been found useful even beyond their countries of origin as they provide range of activities and materials that be used selectively or modified and also provide guide lines for curriculum development in teacher education.

We find that emphasis is laid on devising such activities which not only cover the identified skill areas but also give due consideration to what is likely to motivate the student teacher. The in-service training is quite expensive and be provided most economically. In many countries, in-service training is a semi-voluntary activity, often taking place during school holidays. Some times such training is compulsory. In Malaysia such a training was made compulsory when the new integrated science curriculum was introduced. In the USSR, all teachers are required to attend refresher courses every five years.

In Yugoslavia, in-service-training, of at least 3 days annually is compulsory since In Japan there is a provision which allows groups of teachers to study abroad for upto a month. Similar arrangements can be found in many other countries. National chemical societies also make some distinctive contribution to make to the professional development of chemistry teachers. Institutions of higher education and universities are also participating in such programmes. It is a must for further education required by many a socially attractive occupations medicines, engineering etc.

In view of this we should expect no problem in motivation for chemistry learning but it has been found by majority of chemistry teachers that their students consider chemistry as hard, dull and boring. To change this attitude teacher and curriculum developers made an attempt by concentrating on the materials to be learnt. Changes in curriculum occur slowly and to avoid any frustration due to these slow changes teachers should find other ways to tackle the problem. Role of the Teacher 63 To make chemistry learning more interesting there should be a clear linkage between the affective and cognitive aspects of learning on the concerned culture.

Johnstone proposed the model for the situation of a learner confronted with the heavily conceptual content of chemistry. If information content does not over-load the concept understanding, perceived difficulty will be low and feeling will be positive. Perceived difficulty Perceived difficulty affective with affective with some cognitive some cognitive concept understanding Cognitive with some affective growth of meaningful language for storage, thinking and retrieval in long-term memory Fig. A model for learning situation confronting pupil in chemistry. Teacher should use a consistent language and should avoid providing any unessential information.

The effective use of chemistry laboratory and chemistry practicals be made by the teacher to make chemistry learning more interesting. However in some countries we lack laboratory facilities and in some others where such facilities are available they have not been put to proper use. Karplus et al. Gagne and White have developed a model of ways in which memory can aid or inhibit learning. Two of these postulates are more relevant for making effective use of laboratories.

The first are called images. They are figural representation in memory of diagrams, pictures or scenes. This type of memory can be built up by chemistry teacher in the class room or laboratory. The second are called episodes. There are representation in memory of part events in which the individual was personally involved. Both images and episodes are useful aids for recall of knowledge associated with them. Generally we have those episodes which have less emotive associations but which provide a stock of concrete experiences from which meaning can be attached to new information.

Teacher should use opportunities to link the laboratory experience of the students to the learning process. He should choose images and episodes carefully and associate them with key topics in the course of study. By such an association teacher can give meaning to the abstractions of chemical knowledge. He should be fully acquainted with and should have a full knowledge of school time table, the ideals of school and the social environment of the school.

He should take special interest in arranging and performing demonstration relevant to chemistry teaching in his classes. He should help the students of his class to carry out practical work in the laboratory.

Lab Techniques & Safety: Crash Course Chemistry #21

He is responsible tor organisation of chemistry laboratory, chemistry library etc. He is also expected to organise various co-curricular activities such as science fair, science exhibition, hobbies etc. He is also required to help in preparation and production of quality books in chemistry. He is expected to select and recommend good textbooks to his students.

He should provide active assistance in improving chemistry curriculum. He should assign appropriate and relevant home-work and assignments to his students and to check such assignments regularly. He should keep a proper record of the progress of his students. Such record would be quite useful for better results.

He is expected to make proper use of various audio- visual aids in teaching of chemistry. He is expected to help in setting up of audio-visual room in the school. He is expected to help in preparation and collection of audio-visual materials and improvised apparatus. He must strive hard for his own personal growth and keep himself acquainted with i the latest knowledge and development in the subject and methodology of teaching chemistry ii chemistry journals and instructional material iii new trends and experiments in teaching chemistry iv attending work-shops, summer institutes etc.

He should maintain a diary and make proper records in it. He is expected to help in school administration and in carrying out the inspection of school specifically concerned with chemistry department. Scientists, leaders in government, industrialists, and the public in general need to be able to understand scientific problems and to make good judgements about them. We need scientific literate and informed people to make decisions about such things as major government projects in space exploration and medical science; health problems, environmental and population problems, such as air and water pollution; diseases such as cancer or tuberculosis and epidemics; or the possible effects of chemical pesticides upon us and our environment.

More and more people will need science in their work, and they must depend on teachers to help them get the knowledge they will need. This is also true in engineering, medicine and other fields related to science. The next generation of youngsters, as it passes through school, must be as well-educated in and about science as its talent will permit if we are to continue to prosper in our democratic society.

Good science teaching is one of the most valuable ways to meet this urgent need for science-educated citizens and workers. Enthusiastic, intelligent, and well-educated science teachers inspire and prepare students to investigate the great questions of science and the questions raised by the scientific discoveries which affect us and our society.

Mainly through the inspiration of devoted science teachers, great number of students develop lifelong scientific interests and learn to appreciate and understand the nature of science and its usefulness to mankind. The science teacher derives great satisfaction from this special importance of his work. And added to it is the great satisfaction that comes from mastering a field of scientific study and from affording a special kind of service to others. We need it because discoveries in science affect many aspects of society. Many among us will make a career of science, engineering, or technology.

We need a good foundation in science to become competent in our chosen work. Therefore, we can say in general that a science teacher, at whatever level he is teaching, is laying the foundations for an understanding of science. As a teacher he should be understanding, sympathetic. Teachable and free of prejudices.

Science teaching requires a sound knowledge of the subject and a real interest and ability in sharing this knowledge with others. It also requires keeping up-to-date. The work is not easy, but it is creative, and it can be extremely exciting and satisfying. It takes thought, energy, and enthusiasm. Here is an example of what one good school expects of its science teachers: 1. He plans his work for the whole year before school starts its session.

He plans his lessons well in advance before he enters the classroom for teaching science. He knows the various practical skills needed in his particular field. He guides and assists his students in their laboratory experiments, field trips and projects. He is also responsible for the safety of the students and the condition of the laboratory and its equipment.

He decides in what way each aspect of his subject can best be taught. Some of the ideas and problems can be most effectively presented by demonstration, others through student investigation, field trips, or by films or lectures.

Set Up Your Home Chemistry Lab

He also masters the finer art of asking the questions that will stimulate his students to think for themselves and to search for answers. Role of the Teacher 69 5. He organises class procedures, plans the use of the laboratory, discusses with the class, and helps his students learn how to find information outside the classroom in school and city libraries, local industries, or by consulting experts in the community.

He encourages his students to develop a lasting interest in science, its changes, and its methods. He guides both individual and group projects and help the students participate in various programmes of awards and recognition. He may sponsor a school science club and with the help of other science teachers and students, organises a science fair or plan field trips.

He keeps both himself and his students informed on the most recent developments in his field. He draws his students attention to the social, economic, political, and other aspects of the relationship between society, people and modern science. Thus he and his students always see that science study is not limited to the classroom. He attends orientation courses in his field seminars, workshops, summer institutes , as well as science conventions and science conferences for his academic growth.

He conducts action research in science education and actively participates in innovative science programmes for better science teaching. He always efforts for quality science education to his students. Yes No 1. Do you enjoy reading and studying in science as well as in other academic areas?

Have you been a good science teacher? Do you like working with students and Do you like to help your students? Do your students and other science teachers Could you enjoy and adopt to a career Have you developed science projects and Do you like to find answers to problems on Do you have a sense of humour? Can you accept criticism and profit from it? Do you consider that preparing students Are you developing the ability to read Are you in good health, both physically and Role of the Teacher 71 If you have checked thoughtfully YES for most of the above questions, you very likely would enjoy teaching science at any level, and you should read on to learn how you prepare for this type of exciting career.

Do you have the attributes, such as integrity, drive, and a high sense of responsibility, which are valued in teaching specially science teaching. Besides these, there are special characteristics of successful and happy science teacher. By teaching chemistry we aim at bringing about a desirable behavioural changes among pupils. Teaching is thus a most difficult task and every body is not fit to be a teacher.

Some others who are not so fortunate can improve their teaching through practice if they are fully acquainted with various methods of teaching. In order to make children learn effectively, the teacher has to adopt the right method of teaching. For choosing right method for a given situation the teacher must be familiar with different methods of teaching.

Some of them have been recommended for use, some have been disapproved and some have been recommended for use with caution. This does not mean that a teacher may select any one method and then cling to it lavishly throughout his service or even an entire academic session. This is a great mistake because each method has its own merits. Our preference for any one of the methods deprives us of the merits of other method. A good teacher should therefore try to imbibe the good qualities of all methods instead of depending on any one method.

The teacher should keep himself on the right side of every method. The best method of a teacher is his own individualised and personalised method which is the result of his varied and long experience in teaching. Some of the points which a teacher should keep in mind are as under: i Heuristic approach be used to start a lesson.

Thus the lesson be introduced in a problematic way so that the students feel that they are going to learn some thing really useful and worth learning. Teacher should give maximum opportunity of participation to the students so that they feel that their active participation in quite important for the solution of problem and successful growth of the subject. Methods of Teaching 75 vii Through Heuristic approach dominates that the historical method of teaching be utilized at places and the lives and achievements of famous scientists be told to the students. These are a source of inspiration to the students.

In a lesson if, in addition to planned illustrations and experiments students want some more experimental evidence then the teacher should make all possible efforts to satisfy the students. Thus we conclude that no single method could be the best method and a good teacher will have to evolve his own individual method consisting of good points of all the methods.

He will never become a slave to any method and will remain a true master of all of them. It is possible to train the students in scientific method. In this method student is involved in finding out the answer to a given scientific problem and thus actually it is a type of discovery method. Scientific method of teaching helps to develop the power of reasoning, application of scientific knowledge, critical thinking and positive attitude, in the learner.

This method proceeds in the following steps: i Problem in identified. Scientific method is therefore a well sequenced and structured method for finding the results through experiments. Role of Teacher: For the success of scientific method the role of teacher is very important. Under the proper guidance of the teacher the science laboratory should become the hub for implementations of this method. The Merits: Scientific method has following advantages: i Students learn chemistry of their own and teacher works only as a guide. Methods of Teaching 77 v It helps to develop intellectual honesty in students.

The Limitation: Some important limitations of the method are as under: i It is a long, drawn out and time consuming method. In chemistry problem solving has been presented by Ashmore, Frazer and Casey. They define problem solving as a result of the application of knowledge and procedure to a problem situation and propose four stages: i definition of the problem, ii selection of the appropriate information, iii putting together the separate pieces of information, and iv evaluation of the solution.

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Many other authors in the field have taken up different approaches and some have given even 20 to 30 steps in the problem solving approach for teaching of chemistry. Difficulties in Problem Solving in Chemistry: There were a many fold difficulties, some of these are: i To formulate problem which will be real but still have only one solution. To construct problems for teaching problem solving skills the following procedure has been developed.

This paper should not be easily available to students. Logical axis of Limits of the topic topic. To illustrate it the problem selected is from chemistry of natural products. This paper was selected because a of its high quality b of its relevance to undergraduate course c of its demanding relatively simple knowledge of chemistry d of its having a sufficient amount of experimental data. Useful Data that was Available in the Paper was a The unknown compound was isolated from the neutral fraction of the methanol extract of Viscum album Linn.

Coloratum Ohwi by column chromatography on activated alumina. Spectra gives bands absorption at , , , cm—1. No absorption bands are obtained which may indicate the presence of free amino group or a carboxyl group. Problem: Try to hypothetize what the isolated substance would be. Design of Networks: Students were free to design their network and it was observed that the networks of successful students were almost similar.

Following generalisation were made. Development of a Similar Example for Secondary Level: The following example was developed and tried out in secondary schools: Problem: Hydrolysis of proteins gives a solid compound A which dissolves in water. In electrolysis it migrates towards the cathode or anode—depending on pH. It is not optically active. On heating it yield another solid B having a molecular mass What is A?

Students Results: In most cases students could reach only second level. Coming to linear conclusions. Conclusion i Research papers are good source for construction of problems for teaching chemistry through problem- solving method. It gives more confidence to the students. Learning Chemistry by Pattern Recognition: This method of chemistry learning is based on the following hypothesis.

In chemistry we find the existence of periodic system. It is a recognised pattern of a number of facts about elements and their relationships. Similar pattern of compounds exists in matter. However to reach a bigger pattern of compounds we should first aim at subsystems. The main idea of learning chemistry by pattern recognition is to encourage the students to select a specific field of compounds or reactions or properties to search for their characteristics and to try to construct patterns and check them.

This is illustrated by taking example from the course of secondary level. Example 1: Organic Compounds of Oxygen Students learn organic compounds only in fragments however they may be presented as a chain of knowledge. Alcohols Ethers Reduction —H2O. This chain of knowledge is a pattern. It is repeated at a higher level in chemistry of carbohydrates. It helps the students in learning more about the carbohydrates and their interrelationship with oxygen compounds. Polycols Glycosides —H2O. A large number of compounds can be added to each group and from this students can generalise that the nature of—OH group is decided by the other part present in the molecule.

The Advantages 1. It makes use of different sources of data, their comparison and critical analysis. It motivates students for research and data organisation. It helps organise learning towards higher cognitive levels. It develops the ability to organise the data, to find an classify parameters, to search for regularities, systems and patterns. It provides support for prediction, design for checking hypotheses.

It helps orientation towards curriculum design. It provides design of research. It provides a support for industrial decisions. The Drawbacks 1. It is too vague. In the absence of sufficient data students might end in speculation. Summary: Pattern recognition can combine teaching and learning situations with research design and is also helpful in taking industrial decisions. It is one of the most efficient methods in teaching of chemistry. To avoid the drawbacks of the method the process of pattern recognition should be considered more important than the pattern produced.

Critical evaluation of a pattern be taken up carefully. Every pattern design has to be faced not only with facts and their relationships, but in a dialectic approach, in which the recognition of their changing nature is also essential. This method is most commonly followed in colleges and in schools in big classes. This method is not quite suitable to realise the real aim of teaching chemistry.

In lecture method only the teacher talks and students are passive listeners. Since the students do not actively participate in this method of teaching so this method is a teacher controlled and information centred and in this method teacher works as a sole resource in class room instructions. Methods of Teaching 85 Due to lack of participation students get bored and some of them some times may go to sleep.

In this method students is provided with ready-made knowledge by the teacher and due to this spoon feeding the students loses interest and his powers of reasoning and observation get no stimulus. In this method the teacher goes ahead with the subject matter at his own speed.

The teacher may make use of blackboard at times and may also dictate notes. This teacher oriented method in its extreme from does not expect any question or response from the students. Advantages: It has the following advantages: i It is quite economical method. It is possible to handle a large number of students at a time and no laboratory, equipment, aids, materials are required.

Using this method teacher feels secure and satisfied. It minimises the chances of any gaps or over- lappings.


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  • They cannot challenge or question the verdict of the teacher. This checks the development of power of critical thinking and proper reasoning in the student. Summary: After considering various merits and demerits of method it may be concluded that this method may be suitable for teaching in higher classes XI, XII where we aim to cover the prescribed syllabus quickly. Teaching by this method these students of classes XI and XII will also help those students who intend to join college so that they can prepare themselves for college where lecture method of teaching is a dominant method of imparting instruction.

    This method of teaching can be made more beneficial if the teacher encourages his students to take notes during the lesson. After the lesson teacher can give his students some time for asking questions and answer their queries without any hesitation. While delivering his lesson the teacher may see that the lesson is delivered in good tone, loudly and clearly.

    He should use only simple and understandable words for delivering his lesson. If a teacher can introduce some humour in his lesson it would keep students interested in his lesson. This is considered to be a superior method of teaching in comparison to lecture method. In lecture method the teacher speaks and students listen so it is a one way traffic of flow of ideas and students are only passive listeners. This one sidedness is the major drawback of lecture method. A teaching method is considered better if both teacher and taught are active participants in the process of teaching.

    This particular aspect is taken care of in demonstration method. This lecture-demonstration method is used by good chemistry teachers for imparting chemistry education in class room. By using this method it is possible to easily impart concrete experiences to students during the course of a lesson when the teacher wants to explain some abstract points. This method combines the advantages of both the lecture method and the demonstration method. In this method of teaching the teacher performs experiment before the class and simultaneously explains what he is doing.

    He also asks relevant questions from the class and students are compelled to observe carefully because they have to describe each and every step of the experiment accurately and draw inferences. After thorough questioning and cross-questioning the inferences drawn by the students are discussed in the class. In this way the students remain active participants in the process of teaching. The teacher also relates the outcomes of his experiment to the content of the on-going lesson.

    Thus while in lecture method teacher merely talks in demonstration method he really teaches. Principle: This method is based on the principle: Truth is that which works. Requirements for a Good Demonstration: For success of any demonstration following points be always kept in mind: i It should be planned and rehearsed by the teacher before hand.

    Alternately, if the class is well disciplined the teacher may allow the students to sit on the stools placed on the benches to enable them to have a better view. Methods of Teaching 89 iv All the pieces of apparatus be placed in order before starting the demonstration.

    The apparatus likely to be used should be placed on the left hand side of the table and it should be arranged in the same order in which it is likely to be used. After an apparatus is used it should be transferred to right hand side. Only things relevant to the lesson be placed on demonstration table. This he can achieve by putting well structured questions. However even after all the necessary precaution the experiment fails in the class room due to one reason or the other, the teacher should not get nervous instead he should make an effort to find the reasons for the failure of the experiment.

    Sometimes in this process a good teacher may draw very useful conclusions. In such a situation a good teacher finds an opportunity to show his skill. He should know different ways of arresting the attention of the students. The blackboard can also be used for drawing necessary diagrams. Conducting Demonstration Lesson: We commonly find chemistry teachers making use of demonstration method for teaching of chemistry.

    The conduct of a demonstration lesson is very difficult and here we will try to discuss some of the essential steps that should be followed in a demonstration lesson. Planning and Preparation: A great care be taken by the teacher while planning and preparing his demonstration lesson. He should keep the following points in mind while preparing his lesson: a subject matter, b questions to be asked; c apparatus required for the experiment. To achieve the above stated objective the teacher should thoroughly go through the pages of the textbook, relevant to the lesson.

    After this he should prepare his lesson plan in which he should essentially include the principles to be explained, a list of experiments to be demonstrated and the type of questions to be asked from the students. Before actually demonstrating the experiment be rehearsed under the conditions prevailing in the class room. Inspite of this, some thing may go wrong at the actual lesson, so reserve apparatus is often useful. The apparatus should be arranged in a systematic order on the demonstration table.

    Thus for the success of demonstration method a teacher has to prepare himself as thoroughly as a bride prepares herself for the marriage. Introduction of the Lesson: As in every other subject so also in case of chemistry the lesson should start with proper motivation of the students. It is always considered more useful to introduce the lesson in a problematic way which would make students realise the importance of the topic. The usual ways in which a teachers could easily introduce his lesson is by telling some personal experience or incident, a simple and interesting experiment, a familiar anecdote or by telling a story.

    A good experiment when carefully demonstrated is likely to leave an everlasting impression on the young mind of the pupil and it would set his pupils talking in school and out of it, about the interesting experiment that had been demonstrated to them in the chemistry class. This should be kept in mind not only to start the lesson but be used, on every suitable occasion, during the lesson.

    It is not possible to give an exhaustive list of such interesting experiments but as an illustration we can consider the opening of soda water bottle in the class room, by the teacher, following by a direct question to his pupil, have they seen any gas coming out of the bottle?

    At this stage the teacher can introduce the topic of carbon dioxide. Presentation: The method of presenting the subject matter is very important. A good teacher should present his lesson in an interesting manner and not in a boring way. For example, students aspiring to become dental hygienists complete a training program specific to that occupation. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, vocational careers are projected to grow exponentially across the nation between and The table below outlines the top 20 jobs expected to see the largest employment gains during this time span.

    When it comes to vocational careers, health care is leading the charge. Below is a description of some of the top jobs for prospective students to consider. LPNs are vital members of health care teams, providing hands-on patient care under the supervision of a registered nurse or physician. Vocational training typically requires approximately one year of study and prepares graduates for a career in nursing with upward mobility. An in-demand occupation, there were nearly , LPNs employed nationally in A diagnostic medical sonographer, also known as an ultrasound technician, works under the supervision of a physician and produces internal images of the human body using variety of imaging equipment.

    Training lasts between 12 to 18 months and students are required to complete between 1, and 2, practicum hours. A range of specializations are available, including vascular sonography, abdominal sonography, echocardiogram sonography, and musculoskeletal sonography.

    Pharmacy technicians work alongside licensed pharmacists, dispensing prescribed medications to patients, processing and labeling medications, measuring and filling prescriptions, providing customer service, and handling administrative duties. An aging population and health care reform are directly responsible for the 70, jobs expected to open between and Electricians are tasked with installing, maintaining, and repairing power, lighting, and control systems in residential and commercial properties. An apprenticeship program lasting between four to five years traditionally follows technical training.

    The improving economy and a growing housing market has bolstered the demand for trained and qualified electricians. Construction managers, also known as general contractors, oversee construction projects and take them from the planning stage to completion. From collaborating with architects to hiring subcontractors, reviewing coding requirements to handling budget issues, construction managers serve as captains of construction sites. With housing markets steadily growing, an additional 78, construction management jobs will become available between and At the postsecondary level, vocational education is available through a variety of outlets at the state and local levels, with some employers also offering programs.

    The Office of Vocational and Adult Education oversees federal funding to individual states and training programs. The US Department of Education reports that the majority of vocational training is provided by community colleges, with the remainder distributed by four-year universities, technical and trade schools, employers, and job training centers. Read on to learn more about individual providers:. These two-year institutions offer an array of academic credentials such as associate degrees, diplomas, and certificates in different vocational tracks. Vocational schools are traditionally government recognized and supported, and provide a range of training program lasting between one and two years.

    Typically operated by for-profit institutions, career colleges offer a variety of training programs typically completed within 12 months. In addition to studies provided at the undergraduate and graduate levels, some four-year universities also offer associate or certificate training programs in vocational fields.

    Administered by the United States Department of Labor, Job Corps centers provide free vocational training to individuals between the ages of 16 and Many communities have career training providers or centers for employment that offer vocational preparation in areas such as culinary arts, auto repair, construction, and health care. The Department of Defense has partnered with the Department of Veterans Affairs and the Department of Labor to create a wide range of vocational training programs for military members transitioning into civilian life.

    While more and more jobs require some level of postsecondary education, mounting student debt has highlighted the rising cost of a traditional baccalaureate education. In answer to this conflict, career and technical education programs have risen in popularity. The table below provides a comparison of some of the most common pros and cons associated with vocational schools. Career specific education offered by vocational schools enable graduates to join this growing skilled workforce. The Bureau of Labor Statistics found that earnings increase and unemployment decreases for every step up the degree ladder.

    In , individuals with an associate degree earned nearly 20 percent more than those with a high school diploma and their unemployment rates were two percent lower. Vocational training programs are typically completed in one to two years. A bachelor's degree can take four or more, extending the amount of time it takes to enter the workforce. Vocational programs sometimes operate under a disadvantage as they may be considered less valuable or lacking the rigor of a four-year degree. While vocational degrees improve overall earning potential, those with four-year degrees garner salaries over 31 percent higher.

    The three student profiles below are examples of the varied types of students enrolled in vocational training programs across the country. Mary is a 32 year-old nursing assistant who wants to advance her career in healthcare. She began working directly out of high school, but realizes completing a degree boosts her career prospects. Enrolling in an Associate of Science in Nursing program, Mary can realize her dream of becoming a nurse after two to three years of study.

    Carolina's extensive assortment of compound and stereomicroscopes span virtually all grade levels and applications. Popular corded compound microscopes and cordless microscopes for elementary to advanced use. We have the compound microscope you are looking for! Digital microscopes are great for large classroom computer combined instruction.

    Students can take images, videos, and more. Stereomicroscopes show 3D images vs. They are great for first tme student use. Get your students inspired with high school physical science kits, robotics, Carolina ChemKits, and much more. Teach long term earth changes in real time and study the atmosphere, weather and climate and their impact on sustaining life. One stop for all your classical mechanics science and energy education needs.

    Exciting activities that make science active and fun! Carolina has the best specimens available, along with dissecting supplies, instruments, and much more. Carolina's Perfect Solution specimens are a safe, non-toxic alternative to Formalin. Carolina's innovative, proprietary tissue fixative produces superior specimens with life-like tissue texture and color. Carolina provides owl pellet products that are heat sterilized and easy to use for students of all ages. Excellent for hands-on, inquiry-based learning. For over 80 years, Carolina has provided superior non-mammal specimens that engage students in hands-on dissecting experiments.

    This is a great way to learn basic anatomy. Carolina is your one-stop shop for insects in the classroom. For over 85 years we have been supplying teachers with butterflies, ladybugs, praying mantis, ants and more. K—8 inquiry-based, hands-on science curriculum that paves the way to deep understanding of phenomena through 3-dimensional learning. Moving to NGSS? Teaching NGSS is more than checking off standards. Thank you for your continued use of the STC Program.

    Keep your classroom alive with activities, information, and help in biology, biotechnology, botany, genetics, and more. Make your classroom electrifying with activities and information spanning chemistry and physics content. Everything from equilibrium to electricity and reactions to rocketry at your fingertips. Mine activities, information, and helpful hints for ESS.

    http://marcfaggionato.com/images/software/564.php Trendy 3-D special effects on movie screens grab and keep your students' attention. Now use their fascination with mutli-dimensions to discuss visual perception, optics, and colors while studying the solar system. This demonstration is dedicated to raising your students' awareness of the air pollution created by their everyday activities. Teach a class like forensic science where you have to apply physics, chemistry, and biology content? We have interdisciplinary activities and tips to help.

    This author provides an excellent student lab-report format, explains how it adapts to different science disciplines, and suggests simple labs to familiarize students with it. This brief guide will provide you with the information you need to make a number of solutions commonly used in educational laboratories. Keep your classroom or lab safe throughout the schoolyear with lots of helpful tips, hints, and safety techniques.

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    Get general information, care guides, and product information here. Brush up on the latest instructional strategies and pedagogy with information from our teaching partners, instructional designers, and academic consultants. Feeling the pinch from the current economy? Carolina understands. When you look at a body of water, it is easy to focus on the obvious—birds, fish, plants, and recreational opportunities.

    However, unseen are microorganisms in the water and the surrounding substrates that you can study in your classroom with ease. Protozoa, a group of , described species of flagellates, amoebas, spore formers, and ciliates, are excellent tools to help students understand single-celled organisms.


    • Basic Theory in Reflection Seismology, Volume 1: (Handbook of Geophysical Exploration: Seismic Exploration).
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    • Protozoa can also be found within other organisms, and can be used as examples of symbiosis and mutualism for ecological and entomological studies. Symbiosis is when 2 dissimilar organisms live together in close association, and mutualism is defined as a mutually beneficial relationship between 2 organisms. Sometimes these 2 relationships are combined. For example, the termite exhibits a symbiotic mutualism with the protozoan Trichonympha , which helps it digest cellulose. Protozoa in the environment can impact human, animal, and plant life.

      When looking at diseases affecting humans and animals, protozoans of interest are members of the phylum Apicomplexa. Within this group is Plasmodium , a blood-borne pathogen that causes malaria and is transmitted by the Anopheles mosquito. Relatives of this protozoan group also include the Coccidia, whose members are notable for Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma , which are spread through contact with infected fecal matter.

      Protozoa have positive impacts, as well. They can provide a source of energy for other organisms, and protozoan interactions with bacterial communities can release compounds into the surrounding soil that help sustain plant life. Protozoa can be differentiated by their means of locomotion, which include pseudopodia, cilia, or flagella. These methods are used to move the entire organism or as a means for procuring food.